II. Bone and Joint Diseases: Overview

Where to start? 

I. Think about the Functions of the musculoskeletal System

  • Mineral homeostasis (Calcium, phosphorus)
  • Housing for haematopoietic bone marrow elements
  • Mechanical functions
    • Protect viscera
    • Movement and locomotion
    • Body structure and size

II. Next, it may be helpful to begin by classifying the conditions into:

  • BONE vs JOINT diseases


  • FOUR major aetiologic categories: Inflamatory, Infectious, Metabolic and Neoplastic
  • There are of course conditions that fall into other aetiologic categories (eg. traumatic, vascular, congenital, etc), however, we will focus on these four, in accordance with your lecture material.

Here’s a simple framework to start with:

  • I. Bones
    • Infectious diseases (osteomyelitis) 
    • Metabolic diseases (osteoporosis; osteomalacia/rickets; hyerparathyroidism; Paget’s disease)
    • Neoplasms (Benign vs Malignant primary neoplasms; Metastatic malignancy)
  • II. Joints
    • Inflammatory diseases (eg. osteoarthritis – degenerative and inflammatory; rheumatoid arthritis; crystal arthropathies) 
    • Infectious diseases affect both bones (osteomyelitis) and joints (septic arthritis)

This mindmap explains a systematic Approach to Bone and Joint Diseases

Mindmap: Approach to Bone and Joint Diseases

If you can’t play the video, watch it here on YouTube: https://youtu.be/Qfgcu2X5t3Y

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