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II. Clinical Manifestations of Urogenital Diseases

The kidney alone is a complex organ, with several functions as highlighted earlier. Its chief function is to manufacture urine from blood – filter out what is not needed, and keep what is. Thus abnormal renal function is clinically manifested in the nature (components eg. cells, protein) and volume of urine.

Here are some important definitions:

Uraemia – Azotaemia together with clinical signs and symptoms. Often, other organs areas are also affected, eg. Uraemic gastroenteritis, peripheral neuropathy, uraemic fibrinous pericarditis. 

Azotaemia – Biochemical abnormality characterised by raised blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels

Click on the tabs below to look at the clinical manifestations and some basic investigations

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