III. Lower Urinary Tract and Male Genital System

Now that we have separated the urogenital tract into its THREE main parts, let’s focus on the Lower urinary tract and Male genital system before tackling the Kidney in the next section.

I. Diseases of the Lower Urinary Tract (LUT)

  • Ureters, bladder, urethra
  • Main aetiologic categories:
    • Infectious/Inflammatory
    • Congenital
    • Neoplastic
    • Urolithiasis (calculi formation)

Many conditions can result in Obstruction, which is an important clinical complication of LUT diseases

  • This in turn can lead to urine stasis and infection, which can not only involve the LUT but ascending into the kidneys, giving rise pyelonephritis (this is discussed under Tubulointerstitial diseases in the Kidney in the next section)
  • Stasis can also contribute to the formation of urinary calculi
  • The obstructed ureters may dilate, and cause dilatation of the  renal pelvicalyceal system (hydronephrosis), which causes thinning and atrophy of the renal parenchyma and eventually renal failure

Here are some causes of obstruction, some of which are mentioned in the mindmap below:

(This diagram is taken from Robbins and Cotrans Pathologic Basis of Disease)

MINDMAP: Overview of the UG system and Diseases of the LUT

If you can’t play the video, watch it here on YouTube: https://youtu.be/T06PVTHEuqg

II. Male genital system

  • Penis, Prostate, Testis (and epididymis)
  • Main aetiologic categories (very similar to LUT):
    • Infection/Inflammatory
    • Congenital
    • Neoplastic
    • Other common conditions mentioned individually

MINDMAP: Conditions affecting the Male Genital System

If you can’t play the video, watch it here on YouTube: https://youtu.be/St8LdW0iWY4

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